Vocational training in Vietnam has a long history of development, associated with the emergence and existence of wet rice civilization and traditional craft villages. The ancient Vietnamese passed the craft to successive generations to produce and maintain life; those are forms of vocational transmission in the form of imitation of prehistoric nature to conscious imitation and transmission of professions by wards and associations.
At the end of the 19th century, a formal training organization was formed at a number of vocational schools such as the Hanoi School of Practical Technology (1898), Hue School of Practical Technology (1889) and the Saigon Ba Art School (1889). , Hai Phong practical technical school (1913). At the beginning of the 20th century, the first vocational training institutions were established with many different types such as: vocational training classes at factories, vocational schools… At this time, the number of students was very small, only enough to provide for industries. light industry, consumer industry, resource extraction industry, in order to bring profit to the French colonialists.
Since the August Revolution in 1945 and during the nine-year resistance war against the French, although there were no conditions for development, vocational training has timely trained workers, defense, medical, agricultural, pedagogy… in the form of small, short-term schools, scattered in war zones, free zones, working while studying, attaching importance to practice, being associated with reality, suitable to the situation of “All people resist, all resistance war”.
After the historic victory of Dien Bien Phu in 1954 to 1975, the country was temporarily divided into two regions. In the North, vocational training has risen rapidly, and with the effective support of countries in the socialist camp, it has met both strategic tasks of national construction and unification. Due to the requirement of developing human resources to meet the task of building the North and liberating the South, on October 9, 1969, the Government issued Decree No. 200/CP on the establishment of the General Department of Technical Worker Training. under the Ministry of Labor. This is a historical milestone marking the formation and strong development of the vocational training industry.
Along with the development of the country, the General Department of Technical Worker Training has changed its name, as well as the state management agency. On November 27, 2014, the 13th National Assembly passed the Law on Vocational Education, thereby forming a vocational education system consisting of 3 training levels: College, Intermediate and Elementary. On September 3, 2016, the Government issued Resolution 76/2016/NQ-CP unanimously assigning the Ministry of Labor, War Invalids and Social Affairs to perform the state management of vocational education. On July 3, 2017, the Prime Minister issued Decision No. 29/2017/QD-TTg stipulating the functions, tasks, powers and organizational structure of the General Department of Vocational Education under the Ministry of Labor – Invalids and Social Affairs, helping the Minister of Labor – Invalids and Social Affairs manage vocational education activities nationwide.
During the process of construction and development, the vocational training industry has made great contributions to the construction and defense of the country: Many vocational training institutions have developed rapidly, some schools have been commended by the State. is the hero unit; generations of cadres, teachers, lecturers and students have upheld the tradition, following in his father’s footsteps in writing the golden pages of history for the career of vocational training in the struggle for national liberation, building and defend the country. The movement of emulating good teaching and learning well in the whole industry has been promoted; Activities such as the Vocational Skills Competition at all levels (National, ASEAN and the world), teachers’ conference, DIY vocational training equipment contest… have become regular activities from vocational training institutions to the whole country. and bring practical effects: thousands of teachers have won the title of excellent teachers from the grassroots level to the provincial, city and national levels; hundreds of typical teachers received the Nguyen Van Troi Award; many officials and teachers have been conferred the title of people’s teacher by the State, excellent teachers, many have become high-ranking cadres of the Party and State, leading technical and technological experts, highly skilled workers; many students have won prizes in competitions for talented students at provincial, national and international levels; millions of trained workers have been working in factories, enterprises and enterprises; on construction sites and fields, contributing to socio-economic development, industrialization and modernization of the country.
In recent years, the training, retraining and preparation of skilled human resources has been paid great attention by the Party and State and there have been many positive changes in awareness, enrollment scale, quality and effectiveness. educate. The system of legal regulations on vocational education has been gradually improved; the network of vocational education institutions has developed widely and diversified in terms of training types and levels; quality is enhanced; More and more models of high-quality training appear, training associated with the needs of enterprises, making an important contribution to improving the quality of human resources and the socio-economic development of the country. Assessing the situation of vocational education development in the recent period, the Document of the 13th Party Congress stated that vocational education has had many changes, thereby contributing positively to construction people, development human resources. In general, however, the scale, structure and quality of skilled human resources have not yet met the direct human resource requirements for socio-economic development of a country of nearly 100 countries. million people, 55 million workers are in the golden population period, especially in the context of the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic, the trend of automation, electronicization, digitization, and the impact of the Industrial Revolution. Fourth Industrial Revolution and international integration.
In the new period, Vocational Education has a mission to contribute to the development of human resources, especially highly skilled human resources for fast, sustainable, inclusive growth and socio-economic development of the country in the future. each phase. Striving to make our country become a strong country in vocational education in the region by 2030 and catch up with the level of advanced countries by 2045. The objective is to rapidly develop TVET in the direction of open, flexible, modern and effective in order to meet the diverse needs of the labor market, the people and the increasing requirements in terms of quantity, structure and quality. skilled human resources for national development.